WARNING: Students – don’t pack a door wedge!

As September approaches, a new cohort of students prepares to move away from home for the first time and are thinking about what to pack for university. Surprisingly some universities are suggesting students pack a door wedge to prop fire doors open to increase sociability and mobility. However, this presents serious fire safety risks. 

Don’t pack a door wedge!

Wedging fire doors open is dangerous. Students are already likely to prop open fire doors due to their impracticality. Encouraging a student to pack a door wedge increases this risk even further. Students find that fire doors can slam shut causing sleep disturbance, they limit socialisation, and can be inconvenient when moving in and out of the building. But, if fire doors are illegally propped open in university accommodation a fire could quickly spread, endangering lives. 

Don't pack a door wedge
Wedging fire doors open is dangerous

Why are fire doors important? 

Fire doors provide a barrier to toxic smoke and flames for between 30 and 60 minutes, allowing time for students to safely evacuate the building and for fire services to arrive. Not only does this save lives, but it also protects the building from irreversible damage. However, the doors cannot function if they are incorrectly wedged open. Fire will rapidly spread if a fire door is wedged open and unable to close. Despite these risks, 64% of premises visited by the fire services were found to use inappropriate and illegal ways to hold fire doors open. 80% of students living in university accommodation admitted to frequently ignoring fire safety regulations whilst living in university accommodation, making them seven times more likely to have a fire. To reduce this risk students should be educated on the importance of fire doors and how to spot and prevent fire doors from being illegally propped open.

How can you safely hold fire doors open?

Fire doors can be legally held open with a fire door retainer. A fire door retainer, such as a Dorgard is a legal way to hold fire doors open. Dorgard ‘hears’ the fire alarm when it sounds and will automatically allow the fire door to close in the event of a fire. This allows students more freedom to socialise within university accommodation, whilst ensuring fire safety regulations are met. 

Don't pack a door wedge - use a Dorgard
Hold fire doors open safely with a Dorgard Fire Door Retainer

Students should ensure that only safe and legal methods are used to hold fire doors open in their accommodation and should report illegal practices. Why not ask the university if they have fire door retainers installed? If a door wedge is on your child’s university packing list, make sure that is one item you don’t send them off with. 

Bonfire Night: Top Safety Tips

Bonfire night can be a time for family and friends to gather and enjoy autumnal nights outside. Whatever you’re planning for 5th November this year, read our top bonfire and firework safety tips for Guy Fawkes Night.

How do you keep safe on bonfire night?

Rather than run the risk of lighting a fire or fireworks at home, attend an organized event if you can.

Wear gloves when holding sparklers
Hold sparklers away from your body and wear gloves

If you do plan to celebrate bonfire night at home, follow these top tips to stay safe

  1. Always follow the fireworks code
  2. Keep pets and young children away from bonfires and fireworks
  3. Store fireworks securely in a metal box away from anything that could ignite or cause a spark
  4. If you are using sparklers, always wear gloves, hold them at arm’s length away from others and place them in a bucket of cold water when they are finished
  5. Have a Watermist Fire Extinguisher to hand. They are non-toxic, leave no residue to clean up and can be used on wood, paper, clothing and electrical items
  6. Build bonfires away from garden sheds, fences and hedges
  7. Never use flammable liquids such as lighter fluid or petrol to start a bonfire and never light the fire in high winds
  8. Always supervise your bonfire and extinguish it using a bucket of water if it is still burning when your celebrations have finished
  9. Keep a bucket of water or hosepipe nearby
  10. Keep a burns kit or first aid kit at home in case of minor burns or injuries

What do I need for bonfire night?

We recommend the following additional safety items for bonfire night:

St John Ambulance Burn Kit
Have a St John Ambulance Burn Kit to hand on bonfire night

Can I store fireworks that I don’t use?

It is not advisable to store fireworks for any length of time at home as they are explosives and could be very dangerous. If you are intending to store fireworks, ensure they are kept dry in a metal container. Store them in a place where the temperature does not change significantly (for example not on a window sill) and away from anything that could ignite or cause sparks such as electrical items, heaters, matches or lighters. Make sure they are not stored near other combustible materials like card or wood and place them out of reach of children and pets. Always follow manufacturer guidelines for storage periods.

Nest Product Generations – How to Identify Your Products

It is well known that electronic technology advances very quickly, with products being outdated and replaced by a newer version every year. More and more frequently these subsequent versions of the same product are being called ‘generations,’ such as a ‘5th gen iPod.’ Nest Labs’ range of ‘smart home’ products is no exception to this trend and the oldest two have already undergone a few iterations of redesign and improvement.

This guide has been written to help you quickly and easily identify which generation your Nest Products belong to.

Nest Protect

1st Generation 2nd Generation
Edges Straight Edges
Nest Protect 1st Generation Edges
Rounded Edges
Nest Protect 2nd Generation Edges
Backplate Square
Nest Protect 1st Generation Backplate
Circular
Nest Protect 2nd Generation Backplate
Battery Door No Battery Door
Nest Protect 1st Generation Battery Door
Battery Door
Nest Protect 2nd Generation Battery Door
Serial Number 05A or 05C
Nest Protect 1st Generation Serial Number
06A or 06C
Nest Protect 2nd Generation Serial Number

Model Number

Open the Nest app on your phone and tap Protect at the bottom, tap the Settings gear at the top followed by the alarm you’re interested in, and then go to Technical Info. If it says your model is Topaz-1.x then you have a First Generation, while Topaz-2.x denotes the Second Generation alarm.

Nest Learning Thermostat

2nd Generation 3rd Generation
Colours Stainless Steel Stainless Steel, Copper, Black, White
Appearance Nest Thermostat 2nd Generation Appearance Nest Thermostat 3rd Generation Appearance
  • 7cm screen diameter
  • 320 320px resolution
  • 8.25cm screen diameter
  • 480 x 480px screen
Base Nest Thermostat 2nd Generation Base Nest Thermostat 3rd Generation Base
  • Yellow spirit level
  • Rectangular Display connector
  • Blue spirit level
  • Oval display connector
Heat Link Nest Thermostat 2nd Generation Heat Link Nest Thermostat 3rd Generation Heat Link
  • One status light
  • 10cm height and width
  • 3 status lights
  • 11cm height and width

Nest Cam

Indoor Outdoor
Colour Black White
Appearance Nest Thermostat 2nd Generation Appearance Nest Thermostat 3rd Generation Appearance
Differentiating
Features
  • Securely stream 1080p video to your phone, tablet or laptop
  • Various positioning options
  • No installation – simply plug into power and set up via phone app
  • Compatible with standard camera mounts and tripods
  • Weatherproof camera nad cables
  • Magnetic mount with metal plate for wall attachment
  • Night vision
  • Clear 24/7 video with 130 degree viewing angle

What are deed boxes

We all own documents that we either cannot afford to lose, such as passports, marriage certificates, insurance documents and bank documents or that we just cannot bear to lose because of their sentimental value to us, such as important personal letters. Anyone who has been unfortunate enough to lose one of these items will be well aware of the inconvenience, chaos and upset this can cause.

You would not dream of exposing your valuables to theft by leaving them unattended on a window ledge. By the same logic, surely you would not willingly leave your most important documents exposed to fire or water damage either, would you?

Having read this far, you might already have begun creating a mental shortlist of the items you would choose to protect. Now imagine losing them all – at the same time. It is a scary prospect, or at least it would be were there not such a simple and cost effective means of avoiding this potential nightmare: deed boxes.

Deed boxes are designed to take valuable documents and protect them against fire damage and water ingress. Interestingly, the name ‘deed box’ persists despite the deeds of a house, the most important deeds most of us will come across in our lives, are these days usually stored by our solicitors on our behalf.

Safelincs offers a specifically designed Fire and Waterproof Deed Box which protects documents as the ones mentioned above. Suitable for A4 documents and with an internal cubic capacity of 5.4 litres, there is even ample space to store multiple CDs, DVDs or USB devices alongside your paperwork should you wish to. This protects your digital information from fire and water damage as well.
Fire and Waterproof Deed Box

 

This deed box offers all of the standard features experts agree you should look for when choosing a quality box. It can be secured by a key lock (two keys supplied) and is UL certified to protect your valuables from fire for a minimum of 30 minutes. It also protects its contents from water submersion for up to 8 hours, and is supplied with an outstanding 5 year manufacturer’s warranty.

So who is this deed box made for? The answer is anyone that values peace of mind. You’ve read the evidence and understand what is at stake. Buy your deed box right now and take advantage of our free next day delivery service. From the moment you close the lid after placing your most cherished possessions inside, you will be able to enjoy the peace of mind that a quality deed box can provide.

For further information regarding this product, please visit our website or e-mail our friendly customer service team via support@safelincs.co.uk. You can also ring us on 0800 612 6537

Hushing Interlinked Smoke Alarms

Interlinked smoke alarms are becoming more and more popular as they quickly alert you to the event of a fire across larger houses, where there is a risk that you might not hear an alarm going off in the kitchen when you are, for example, in a bedroom upstairs.

Whether connected to each other with wire or wirelessly interlinked through radio frequency, interlinked smoke alarms allow you to connect multiple units – including different types of detectors – which will all sound at the same time when a single alarm detects a potential fire. The heat alarm in the kitchen, the ionisation alarm in your home office, and the specialist strobe and vibration alarm in your elderly parents’ bedroom, for example, will all go off at the same time, if just one alarm is triggered by fire.

Most of us are familiar with the test button on smoke alarms which allows residents to test their alarms regularly, to ensure the components are working and the power supply, whether battery or mains power, is working. On top of this, however, many alarms have a “hush” button which allows you to silence an alarm that has gone off, for example, due to burnt toast.

So how do hush buttons work when you have several interlinked alarms?

It’s easy to assume that, as they are all connected, hushing one alarm will silence all of them, but it is equally logical that only the unit on which you pressed the hush button should be silenced – after all, you don’t want people to assume it was a false alarm if there really is a fire raging downstairs.

Interestingly, not all interconnecting smoke alarms hush in the same way. Here is an overview explaining the different approaches employed by the three main smoke alarm manufacturers in the UK.

Kidde Slick Wireless Smoke and Heat AlarmsFor Kidde smoke alarms, the originating alarm (the unit which detected a potential fire and triggered all of your units) will have its warning light flash faster than all other units while the alarm is sounding – enabling you to identify the smoke alarm that caused the alarm. Pressing the hush button on ANY unit will silence the ENTIRE network.

Ei160e Series Smoke and Heat AlarmsIf you have interlinking Ei Electronics smoke alarms, only the originating unit’s hush button will be able to silence the ENTIRE network. The other units in the circuit can be individually silenced. To identify the originating unit you need to look for the alarm whose warning light is flashing every second, compared to every 40 or so seconds on the other units.

FireAngel WST600 Series Radio-Interlinked Smoke and Heat AlarmsFireAngel smoke alarms, however, deploy an improved silencing protocol. If you hush the originating smoke alarm then, as with the other brands, ALL connected units will be silenced. However, if you hush any other unit, the ORIGINATING alarm will continue to sound but ALL OTHER units will be silenced. This allows you to quickly identify the originating alarm which is very helpful both in case of a false alarm or a real emergency.

If you require support selecting the best smoke alarm system for yourself, please contact the friendly Safelincs support team either by emailing support@safelincs.co.uk or by ringing 0800 612 6537

Fire safety in schools

school-fire-safetyWe have created a helpful guide for school leaders and staff with fire safety responsibility in schools to condense the confusing legislation and recommendations that exist and have turned them into an easy to understand fire safety guide for schools. The article, created by a very experienced fire risk assessor with many years of experience in inspecting schools, addresses:

  • Current situation with regards to arson in schools
  • General fire precautions in schools
  • New school buildings and fire safety
  • What to do should your school experience a fire
  • Examples of typical fire safety violations in schools

Being the fire safety provider of choice both for the Church of England and the Catholic Church, one of Safelincs’ key roles is to supply fire safety goods and services to the thousands of faith schools, amongst others, in the UK. Providing guidance and support is just part of this. We offer schools many opportunities to save costs and to improve fire safety provision at the same time. To benefit from this support offer, contact support@safelincs.co.uk or ring 0800 612 6537. We are happy to help.

We also offer fire risk assessments for schools at very good rates. In addition we provide free fire risk assessment forms as well as free online fire safety log books with automatic reminders, suitable for organisations with multiple sites and numerous responsible staff members.

If you would like to talk to us about the fire safety needs within your school call 0800 612 6537.

What causes “chirping” and false alarms in smoke alarms?

This post was written in 2016 and a more recent version exists. Please read our new guide to troubleshooting beeping smoke alarms.

hoovering-alarmIf your smoke or heat alarm is beeping or “chirping” in the middle of the night with no obvious reason, you may begin to see it as an annoyance rather than a life saving device.

False alarms and chirping are often alerting you of problems that require attention. There are a number of checks that can be done to help find the cause before seeking further help from the manufacturer or retailer. Below is a step-by-step guide to the possible causes and solutions for false alarms and chirping; however, always refer to the manufacturer’s instructions for your exact smoke or heat alarm model. Additional care should be taken with mains powered alarms, as interference with the alarm can cause electrocution.

1) Are you using the correct type of smoke alarm?

There are three main types of domestic alarms available on the market:

Ionisation Smoke Alarms – Slightly quicker at detecting fast flaming fires than other technologies but usually only installed in upstairs landing areas. If installed near a kitchen, where the occasional toast might get burned, ionisation alarms can cause false alarms. The installation of this alarm near sources of smoke is one of the key reasons for false alarms in daytime.

Optical Smoke Alarms – Slightly quicker at detecting slow smouldering fires that can originate from upholstery type materials and over-heated wiring. Suitable to be installed in bedrooms, living rooms and downstairs hallways. These are fairly ‘toast-proof’ and can be installed near kitchens (not in kitchens, though).

Heat Alarms – Activate when the temperature inside the room reaches a certain trigger level or if the heat in a room rises very quickly. These are ideal in kitchens and garages, as they do not get triggered by fumes. Please note that a heat alarm only covers a small area, so larger kitchens will require several heat alarms.

All types of alarm will sound in the event of a fire; however, understanding more about each sensor technology helps you to select units that are least likely to cause false alarms. Alarms placed in the wrong location will on the other hand cause false alarms, eg if you have a smoke alarm located in the hallway and this sounds each time you use the toaster or boil vegetables, it is likely that you have an ionisation smoke alarm installed rather than an optical.

2) Is the alarm in the optimum position?

The user manual for your smoke or heat alarm will provide advice on where to avoid positioning your alarm on the ceiling. Below are some examples of locations to avoid placing your smoke or heat alarm:

  • Near fluorescent lights – as electronic “noise” can cause false alarms
  • In front of air supply ducts for heating or air conditioning, or near ceiling fans
  • Directly above cookers/toasters/kettles (heat alarm) – although heat alarms are designed not to cause false alarms from cooking fumes, they should not be installed directly above cooking appliances
  • Within 0.9m (3ft) of the door to a bathroom or shower room (smoke alarm) – steam can cause false alarms

3) Is there dust and/or insects inside the alarm?

Smoke alarms contain a sensor which is used to detect a fire. Over time, dust can build up or small insects/flies can crawl inside the unit, obstruct the sensor and eventually cause false alarms. Cleaning your alarm helps to remove anything that could be blocking the sensor. Wipe the outside of the alarm with a damp cloth, then using a vacuum nozzle or a hair dryer (set on cold), to suck or blow through the openings of the alarm.

4) Have you been decorating nearby?

If decorating, especially sanding, has recently taken place, dust particles or paint fumes could have entered the sensor chamber, causing damage to the unit and therefore causing false alarms. It is recommended to temporarily cover the alarm whilst decorating. Some alarms are supplied with a protective cover, so keep hold of this after installation for any future use. If you suspect decorating may have affected your alarm, try cleaning the unit as described above.

5) Is the temperature causing the alarm to beep?

Smoke alarms have an optimum operating temperature and it is important to ensure that your alarm is not subjected to temperatures above or below these thresholds. Typically, the operating temperature for a smoke alarm is between 0 ˚C to +40 ˚C. If the alarm is positioned where it may experience blasts of hot or cold air e.g. close to a front door, or the ambient room temperature is not constant e.g. in attics, this is when false alarms can occur. It may be necessary to reposition your alarm.

6) Is the alarm at the end of its life?

Each smoke and heat alarm should have a sticker located on the edge or the back of the unit indicating a replace-by date. This is usually ten years after manufacture. If your alarm starts chirping or regularly sounds falsely, it could mean that the alarm is close to, or has reached the end of its life. Check the date to see if the alarm is due to be replaced.

7) Is there a problem with the mains supply?

Mains powered smoke alarms can usually be identified by two LEDs located on the face of the unit. One LED flashes red approximately once a minute to indicate that the unit is operating correctly. The second LED should be constantly green to indicate that mains power is present. If the green LED is not present, this could mean that there is an issue with the mains power getting to the alarm. If needed, advice should be obtained by a qualified electrician.

8) Is the battery running low?

Chirping every 30-40 seconds is generally an indication that the battery is running low. If your smoke or heat alarm has a replaceable battery, try replacing the battery with a brand new one. It is recommended to change the batteries in your smoke and heat alarms every 12 months. Changing your battery before it runs low helps to overcome the annoying chirps at night. Change the batteries when the clocks are changed forward or register for a free email reminder service.

Many smoke and heat alarms are now fitted with a sealed lithium battery, designed to last the life of the alarm. These batteries are not accessible for replacement and so if your alarm starts chirping but has a non-replaceable battery, the alarm may have reached the end of its life. Batteries running low apply to both solely battery powered alarms as well as mains powered units with a back-up battery.

9) Is there another alarm nearby?

If you have tried all the above and you can still hear chirping, the final check is to see if there is another alarm or device within the same area that could be causing the chirp. It is easy to associate chirping with smoke and heat alarms and forget that other devices e.g. carbon monoxide detectors could also contain a battery that is running low.

Safelincs are happy to provide information regarding your smoke and heat alarms. For more information, you can also visit our Smoke Alarm Help Guides page, or contact our customer services team.

Evacuation Chair Training Requirements

As with any other item of fire safety equipment, there is a requirement to deliver training. If an organisation determines that an evacuation chair is required sufficient training should be provided. Evacuation chair training ensures that nominated staff members can act quickly and confidently when called to do so. Evacuation chair training is therefore required to fulfil what HSE identify as organisations’ ‘duty to provide a means of escape for disabled people’.

Evacuation chair training in a a classroom
Training can be delivered to groups of up to 4 delegates

Is evacuation chair training a legal requirement?

Yes, where evacuation chairs are installed, staff must legally be trained to use the equipment. This is required by the Equality Act 2010, which recognises the difficulties that some individuals may face during an evacuation. Under this act, organisations are responsible for providing means for safe evacuation of every building occupant. This includes both installing evacuation chairs where required, and training enough staff to use them. According to the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations (PUWER) 1998, equipment provided for use at work can be ‘used only by people who have received adequate information, instruction and training.’ This is essential for evacuation chairs, which are considered to be medical equipment. Misuse in a stressful evacuation situation puts the operator, the chair user, and those around them at risk of injury.

Why is evacuation chair training required?

There are legislative requirements for evacuation chair training. The qualification ensures the safety and confidence of both the chair user and the operator. If not used correctly, lives could be put at risk. Training is therefore essential to ensure the competence of the chair operator, who has undertaken a significant personal responsibility to evacuate a friend, colleague, or visitor to safety in an emergency.

Evacuating a pregnant lady in an evacuation chair
Individuals may need support to evacuate for a variety of reasons

Who should receive training?

Due to the significant responsibility placed on individuals who receive training, it is important to ensure that they meet the following criteria:

  • They are a willing volunteer – no one should be forced to take on this responsibility.
  • They are responsible – staff members selected should be sensible, reliable, and understand the importance of their role.
  • They work in the vicinity of the person identified as needing support. It must be practical and possible for the trained member of staff to get to both the chair and the chair user in an emergency (e.g., they should work on the same floor).
  • They are physically able. Nominees trained to use the chair don’t need to be incredibly strong, but mobility and stamina might be required.
  • There should be enough individuals trained to cover shift patterns and absence from work.

How often should training be refreshed?

Once an individual has successfully completed an evacuation chair training course, they can operate that model of chair for up to 3 years. After this time, refresher training is legally required. There are several other reasons that evacuation chair training might need to be carried out again. If a member of staff who is trained to use the chair leaves, is promoted, or otherwise becomes unable to operate it, a replacement member of staff must be trained. Similarly, if a new FRA, PEEP, or fire drill identifies an individual who would not be able to evacuate, and an additional chair is installed, another member of staff must receive evacuation chair training.

evacuation chair training on a staircase
Training provides delegates with the necessary skills and confidence to support safe evacuation

How many people should receive training on your evacuation chairs?

At a minimum, there must be one evacuation chair installed for every person who would need support to evacuate. For every chair installed, at least one member of staff must be trained and confident to operate it. However, to ensure the safety of all building users when trained staff are unavailable (on annual leave, off sick, or moved to a different office), it is sensible to train additional members of staff where possible. Enrolling a member of staff in a ‘Train the Trainer’ course can be a cost-effective way for training to be dispersed throughout your organisation.       

Fulfilling your organisation’s evacuation chair training requirements

For more information about the importance of training and maintenance for evacuation chairs visit our help guide. Book an evacuation chair training course with Safelincs to equip your employees with comprehensive theoretical and practical training from a fully qualified and experienced trainer. These on-site evacuation chair trainings courses are available nationwide, and suitable for up to 6 participants per course.

Finding a solution to cumbersome heavy fire doors

Dorgard-Main-PictureBusinesses, schools, hospitals and restaurants all have something in common – how to meet the needs of customers and staff while staying compliant with fire safety regulations. Cumbersome heavy fire doors fitted with a door closer ensure the safety of occupants and prevent the spread of fire but they cause issues for those moving from one area to another, especially when carrying heavy objects or for someone with impaired mobility.

Portland Youth Christian Outreach (PYCO), a small charitable organisation working with young people on the Isle of Portland, Dorset carried out their fire risk assessment and found that staff were wedging fire doors open to enable easy movement for staff and users and to enable staff to monitor activity in rooms. These wedges rendered the fire doors inoperative and could have led to serious prosecution for breach of fire safety related laws. Operations Manager at the centre, Zach  Williams said “Fire doors were often left wedged open as this was the only way that users could freely move around the centre and that staff could easily monitor what was happening in other rooms.”

The two main aims for the centre were to adhere to fire safety regulations and to maintain the free movement and monitoring possibility within the centre. It was identified that the Dorgard, a wireless fire door holder that is fitted to the bottom of your fire door would achieve these requirements. The Dorgard permanently holds fire doors open in the desired position. It then listens for the sound of a fire alarm and, on hearing it, lifts the plunger and allows the door closer to close the fire door. This prevents the spread of fire and smoke and gives protection to people within the building. Zach commented that “Fire doors make a real difference in protecting property, so these devices have made a great improvement to the safety of our building and all users. It allows both staff and volunteers to move around the centre with ease, without placing anyone, or the property at risk.”

Dorgard  is easily installed within 5 five minutes and, as it is battery operated, can be installed by almost anyone. This cost effective device helps with the flow of air within a building too, especially in the hot summer months.

Please view the Dorgard for more information or call 0800 612 6537. Watch this video to see how easy Dorgard is to install.

Kidde stops smoke alarms beeping at night

Kidde Safety EuropeSmoke alarms have reduced the number of deaths and injuries related to fire in the UK dramatically over the last decades and are now an essential must-have in every household.
All these millions of smoke alarms, however, rely on batteries in one way or the other. Mains powered smoke alarms require a backup battery in case the mains power supply fails and battery powered smoke alarms use them, as the name suggests, as main source of power. When the battery comes to the end of its life the smoke alarm emits a regular beeping sound for several weeks before the battery finally expires. This gives the owner sufficient time to replace the battery.
As the voltage of a battery drops at lower temperatures, the first low battery warnings are usually emitted at night, when our houses are at the coolest, especially in autumn and winter. This can be very annoying as you are woken up in the middle of the night by a beep every 30 seconds. What can you do to avoid this? You should, of course, replace the batteries regularly before they are getting close to their expiry time and you should have spare batteries at home. However, when it comes to sealed longlife battery units, which last ten years. This situation is much harder to prepare for, as you cannot realistically have a set of complete smoke alarms in your drawer, just in case.
Kidde Fire Safety Products have come up with a brilliant concept to resolve this age old problem. Their longlife, sealed optical smoke alarm 10y29, which has a ten year lifespan, will detect the gradual weakening of its battery and then ensure that the alarm only starts beeping during daytime. This is achieved by monitoring the strengthening/weakening pattern of the battery voltage over a period of time as temperatures rise and fall during the day and nigh time. From this patterns the onboard chip of the smoke alarm will then define the day period and will only then raise the low battery alert during this time. An ingenious solution to a long standing problem.

Fig 1. Normal operation (showing the increasing and decreasing voltage pattern during daytime and night time)

kidde-10y29-info-1

Fig 2. Dropping voltage and the response of traditional smoke alarms which start beeping in the night

kidde-10y29-info-2

Fig 3. Kidde’s 10y29 smoke alarm, which records the night time lows but only starts beeping in the daytime

kidde-10y29-info-3