Smoke Alarm Buying Guide
Which smoke alarms for which rooms?
When choosing smoke alarms it can be hard to find the right type of alarm for a particular room in your house, tenanted property or workplace. Manufacturers have over the years developed a range of different smoke alarm
sensors - and for very good reasons! Fitting the right type of alarm in the right room will not only reduce false
alarms but also identify real fire hazards quicker. Below you will find a list of rooms together with the type of alarm you should fit and a brief explanation as to why.
Ionisation smoke alarms (stairwells, landings, offices):
Ionisation smoke alarms have traditionally been used throughout properties for
many years. Designed to react quickly to fast flaming fires, ionisation smoke
alarms are most sensitive to small particles. When fires produce little or no
smoke but the fuel is subject to rapid combustion, the ionisation smoke alarm
is the quickest to sense its presence. These fires tend to originate from materials
such as paper and clothing.
If you are unsure what type of smoke alarm you have
installed, see if you can find a radioactive symbol or compartment inside the
alarm (if this is accessible). Unlike optical smoke alarms, ionisation smoke
alarms feature a tiny radioactive source in the sensor chamber that enables the
ionising technology to work. It's quick reaction to small particles can make the
smoke alarm prone to false alarms, particularly when located near kitchens. Because
of this, it is recommended for ionisation alarms to be installed in stairwells,
upstairs landings and offices. This should avoid the occurrence of nuisance alarms
when cooking or burning toast!
Optical smoke alarms (also called photo-electric smoke alarm) (bedrooms, lounges,
hallways, also: offices and landings):
Less prone to false alarms than ionisation, optical smoke alarms are slightly
quicker at detecting slow smouldering fires that tend to produce a lot of smoke.
These fires tend to originate from upholstery type materials or over heated wiring.
Also known as photo-electric alarms, this quick response time to smouldering
fires is down to the optical smoke alarm's high sensitivity to large particles
in the air. The optical sensing chamber effectively "sees" when smoke is present,
as the large particles block and cause an infrared light to scatter.
smoke alarms are suitable for installing in bedrooms and living rooms where soft
furnishings and cables are common place. As well as this, optical alarms can
be installed in downstairs hallways as it is significantly less likely than ionisation
to sound falsely when cooking fumes are present from the kitchen. Optical alarms
are not suitable for areas open to the elements
and very dusty environments.
Heat alarms (kitchens, garages):
Responsive to heat rather than smoke, heat alarms are ideal for installing in
kitchens where they are designed to detect a rapid change in temperature. Featuring
a fixed temperature thermistor, heat alarms are triggered when the temperature
inside the room reaches approximately 58 °C. This specific heat sensing technology
avoids false alarms altogether, as the unit does not react to cooking fumes and
steam. Please always refer to the manufacturer's instructions for the optimum
ceiling positioning - typically about 1m from the cooker. Heat alarms are also
suitable for installing in garages. If vehicle fumes are present, a smoke alarm
may become a nuisance with sounding falsely.
Multi-sensor alarms (stairwells, landings, offices, bedrooms, lounges and hallways):
The combined optical smoke and heat alarms contain both optical smoke as well as heat sensing technologies, providing the alarm with the best features from both sensors. Working together, the two sensors intelligently monitor the air for any signs of fire, therefore providing an earlier response and a reduced risk of false alarms in comparison to single sensor detectors. Their wide response envelope makes the combined alarms suitable for almost all areas of a property including landings, hallways, living rooms and bedrooms. Please note, although the combined alarms are containing a heat alarm, they are not recommended for use in kitchen areas. For kitchens, always install a single sensor heat alarm
A word about mains powered smoke alarms
Conforming to BS 5839 Pt 6 grade D, mains powered smoke and heat alarms contain
a back-up battery. In the event of a mains failure, the back-up battery ensures
that the alarm will continue to power until the mains feed is restored. Safelincs
offers a range of mains powered alarms, where customers can choose from standard
alkaline, non-rechargeable lithium upgrade or sealed in lithium back-up battery.
Mains smoke and heat alarms with an alkaline battery back-up provide the cheapest
(up front cost) solution. Depending on how often the alarms are tested, the back
up battery will last approximately 12-18 months before replacement is required.
Manufacturers recommend for the battery to be replaced every 12 months to ensure
a low running battery is not forgotten. Mains powered smoke alarms have the option
to upgrade to non-rechargeable lithium back-up battery. Although not sealed in
the alarm, the battery will last 10 years before replacement; with the exception
of when used with radio interlinked alarms (2-5 years lifespan). Finally, mains
powered alarms are available with a sealed in rechargeable lithium back-up battery.
This battery is designed to last the life of the alarm (10 years) and can not
be tampered with during its lifespan. As well as saving costs from replacement,
the sealed lithium battery option is ideal for rented properties where the removal
of batteries or leaving them to run flat could be an issue.
To obtain a mains feed, smoke and heat alarms can be wired to the nearest lighting
circuit or through a dedicated circuit from the distribution board. Power supply
from the light fitting is generally preferred as it is more cost-effective and
less likely to be disabled to stop the "nuisance" of beeping alarms should the
back-up battery run low.
Whilst mains smoke alarms give you peace of mind for many years without false
alarms or defects, it is dangerous to assume that they work forever. Smoke and
heat alarms should be replaced after ten years, as they then start to become unreliable.
You will typically find the following smoke alarm requirements:
- Domestic, owner-occupied housing: BS5839 part 6 Grade F
- Extensions of domestic, owner-occupied housing: BS5839 part 6 Grade D
- Small businesses, many let properties: BS5839 part 6 Grade D with
additional manual break points in circulation spaces and sometimes additional
Grade F smoke or heat alarms within let flats.
What do the different Grades mean?
Mains-powered, interlinked smoke and heat alarms. These are usually powered with
a cable from the nearest light fitting. To create an interlink (all alarms go
off at the same time in the case of a fire) they either require cable connection
between the units or a radio-interlink connection. In businesses and larger let
properties, these are often combined with manual break points.
With the appearance of ten year sealed smoke alarm units with radio-interlink,
these are becoming more acceptable as an alternative to mains-powered, interlinked
smoke alarms. Radio-interlinked manual break points are also available. However,
we still recommend you check with your Building Inspector (in case of extensions),
Local Council (rented accommodation) to ensure these
alternative alarms are acceptable.
Battery powered, free standing smoke and heat alarms. On their own, they are
mainly designed for domestic, owner-occupied housing. However, F Grade alarms
with radio-interlink (especially when provided with 10 year sealed lithium batteries)
can sometimes be applied as if they were Grade D. Again we recommend that you
check first with the relevant authority.
- LACoRS guide: Housing: Fire Safety Guidance on fire safety provisions for certain types of existing
- Fire Risk Assessment Guides
- A guide to BS5839